Categories of exceptional children -Talented/ gifted children
The following categories of exceptional children have been identified in special needs education; exceptional-talented-gifted-children
a) Gifted / Talented children
b) Learning Disability MENTAL DEVIATIONS
c) Mental Retardation
d) Visual Impairment
e) Auditory/Hearing Impairment SENSORY DEVIATIONS
f) Auditory / Hearing Impairment
g) Emotional / Behaviour Disorders
h) Multiple Handicap
i) Physical Disorders PHYSICAL DEVIATIONS
j) Health Disorders
GIFTED / TALENTED CHILDREN
Giftedness refers to children who give evidence of high-performance capacity in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic leadership capacity or specific academic field and who require services or activities not provided by the school in order to fully develop such capacities.
With this definition, those children who have high performance in academic subjects or are creative and possess leadership skills are said to be gifted. In other words, the performance of such pupils in academic areas is higher than that of children in their age group. This implies that mentally, the child is older than his chronological age.
A talented child is the one who has the ability in artistic areas such as painting, dancing, playing soccer, drumming etc. exceptional-talented-gifted-children
IDENTIFICATION AND SIGNS OF THE GIFTED / TALENTED
1. Generally, gifted children read fast and understand what they read.
2. They express ideas and feelings meaningfully.
3. They retain and retrieve information with ease.
4. They posses wide vocabulary.
5. They are conscientious and have sound judgment.
6. They are intellectually curious.
7. They can manipulate abstract symbols.
8. They have high level of language development.
9. They remember things at an unusual rate.
10. They possess high leadership qualities.
11. AT an earlier age, they are concerned about good and evil, right and wrong, justice and injustice etc.
12. They learn to read easily before they enter school.
13. Outstanding in athletic ability and superior competitors in variety of sports.
14. They ask more questions and easily want to know the causes and reasons for things.
15. They know about many things which others or peers are not aware.
16. They become upset and maladjusted when they are discriminated against and prevented
from realizing their full potentials.
The causes of giftedness / talentedness are basically genetic or hereditary and environmental.
A. GENETIC / HEREDITARY
1. THE RHESUS FACTOR
It is statistically believed that 86% of all human beings possess Rh positive blood while 14% have Rh negative blood. If a mother with Rh positive blood conceives a baby which has inherited Rh positive blood, the two types are said to be compatible or able to exist in harmony. This allows the free flow of oxygen which is vital to the growing brain of the baby.
When we eat, the component nutrient and chemicals are broken down into soluble particles for use of the body. The process by which the enzymes break down the food particles is called metabolism. There is a gene responsible for metabolism so that when the gene inherited by a baby is active, then metabolism goes on to enable all parts of the body to be fed. When the developing brain gets all the nutrients it requires, it grows smoothly and normally.
3. DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA FACTORS)
This is the transmission of a gene in charge of high intelligence from a
Parent to a child. In such a case, the parent transmits his intelligence to the child through the gene. The gene contains an important chemical that is responsible for the transmission of hereditary traits like high intelligence.
The chemical is called DNA.
B. ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES
An environment is defined as a place in which people live and work.
These are the school, home, neighbourhood etc. The following are some
Environmental causes of high intelligence.
1. The pregnant woman should eat a balanced diet
2. The womb must be free from diseases like measles, syphilis, rubella, smallpox etc.
3. Pregnant mothers need to control their emotions.
4. The mother should report at the antenatal clinic on schedule and take drugs prescribed by doctors.
5. Good schools.
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