FORMS OF ASSESSMENT –GHSPEAKS
There are two forms-of-assessment
They are formal and informal assessment.
Formal assessment in special education involves standardized procedures. The testee is required to do one form of test or the other under conditions which can be described as uniform. Thus, the manner in which we expect Kofi to behave during testing, the same manner Ama will be required to behave when being tested eg. Norm referenced test.
The main purpose of formal assessment is to find out if differences exist among children. Therefore in assessing children, we will want to find out if some children have certain characteristics that are different from their peers.
CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL ASSESSMENT
1. It has a standard or uniform procedures for test administration.
- It most often deals with paper and pencil test.
- It has the same procedure for scoring test.
- It provides information that is reliable and dependable.
- It records scores that are standard.
- It gives information on how a child fares in relation to peers and enables us to identify individual differences and helps us to offer individual attention.
- It provides information that is trustworthy and hence dependable.
- It is fair and free from bias.
- It eases decision on placementive are able to turn the instructional environment that caribest send the need of the child.
- It facilitators the process of select the lack of biases makes it possible to the strength and weakness of the children.
Informal Assessment is a type of assessment which does not follow any strict procedures. This assessment can be done any where by anybody. It can take place in the home, classroom, school compound, etc. require any rigorous professional training to conduct informal assessment.
PURPOSES OF INFORMAL ASSESSMENT
Informal assessment aims at ascertaining which areas of the curriculum emphasis should be put. It also identifies the skills a child has mastered or yet to master, identifies the strengths and weaknesses of a child and finally finds out environmental conditions that have effects on learning.forms-of-assessment
CHARACTERISTICS OF INFORMAL ASSESSMENT 1. It does not have strict procedures.
- It may or may not deal with paper and pencil test.
- There are different ways of scoring and interpreting scores obtained in informal assessment.
- It provides information that has less validity and reliability.
- It reports scores anyhow.
MERITS OF INFORMAL ASSESSMENT
- It samples specific areas of the curriculum instead of general ones. This helps us to know the strengths and weaknesses a child has.
- It enables assessors to identify specific difficulties a child experiences
- It can be used anytime and at anywhere eg. Classroom, school compound, playground etc.
- It helps teachers to have information on what to teach next.
- It gives information that can be used for planning instructional programmes.
- It can be used by both professionals and non professionals.
- It gives a comprehensive picture of the child.
- It allows for all children irrespective of the degree of impairments to be assessed.
DEMERITS OF INFORMAL ASSESSMENT
1.It procedures results that are not reliable.
- It is not possible to use the information obtained from informal assessment to make decision regarding placements.
- It is not possible to compare a child’s academic standing with his peers.
- It does not follow any rigidly laid down procedures. A situation such as this can create a room for subjective tendencies.
INFORMAL ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES
- OBSERVATION: It is generally said that most assessment whether formal or informal, begins with observation. In observation, we observe what a person does in various situations. We find out how he thinks, feels or acts. There are two forms of observation. They are direct and indirect observations. In direct observation, the assessor is prevent with the person being observed whilst in indirect observation, others could be engaged to do the observation on behalf of the assessor.
- INTERVIEW: Interview is a face-to-face conversation between two or more people. Its purpose is to obtain information about certain people.
- TASK ANYALYSIS: This is the process whereby a major task is broken into smaller task. Task analysis enables us to have information about what a person can do or cannot do.
- CRITERION REFERENCED TEST (CRT): CRT is the type of assessment that identifies the extent to which a child has mastered an area of content in the curriculum. It is mainly concerned with the skills a child has presumably mastered (learned) in a subject area.
- CURRICULUM – BASED ASSESSMENT (CBA)
Curriculum – Based A t finding out what a child has learned as far as the broad goals of a curriculum are concerned. CBA is important because it enables teachers to have information on a child’s academic, social and emotional characteristics. Such knowledge can help to correct any inappropriate behavior likely to threaten a child’s development.
- PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT
Portfolio assessment is concerned with the assessment of a child’s permanent products eg. crafts, art exercises and others to see the progress being made. It is an examination of what the child has been able to do over the years. We are looking at the progress the child is maturing. forms-of-assessment
- ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
In ecological assessment, we consider the influences of teachers, peers, parents and other family members as well as the mass media on children’s behavior. This assessment is interested in issues such as parental support’s effective use of instructional materials and appropriateness of teachers’ instructional methods on children’s behavior.
- WORK SAMPLE ANAYLSIS: Is concerned friendly with analysis of error parterns in a simple of work. It is a sample of work that is checked to see the errors the child consistently makes while solving or performing a task.
We are looking at the mistakes the child consistently makes.
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