MANAGEMENT OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN
- To succeed in teaching the mentally retarded child one needs to repeat the lesson over and over before it will be fully understood by the mentally retarded child. The child cannot assimilate too much information at one time so you must use your discretion to know how much a particular child can learn at any given time.
2.Recognise every effort made by the child and show appreciation by the use of reinforcement.
- Task analysis – learning tasks should be taught sequentially and relatively complete skills should be taught step by step.
- Counsel parents on how to manage such children at home.
- Educate peers to avoid teasing.
- Task to the mentally retarded child should be the kind in which success is possible. 7. Task should be applied to objects, problems and situation in the learner’s life environment.
- Task completion and independent work habits need to be developed.
- Use drills and repetition.
- Tasks given to a mentally retarded child should be brief.
- The teacher can help the mentally retarded child develop and improve his work habits in three ways, attendance, punctuality and working with others.
- Common Diseases
- First Aid
- Healthy life
- medical conditions
- Relationship and dating
- Surgical conditions
Learning disability refers to a child’s inability to listen, speak, read, think, write or do mathematical calculations. It is supposed to be a disability that consists of very different problems. A person with learning disabilities does not need to show all the disorders. He may have one or two of them. In certain areas, he is good but in other areas he has difficulties. This is known as development imbalance for example, a child may be good in an area except in reading or and writing. Such a child is learning disable or develops mental imbalance.
TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITY
- Dyslexia – refers to a person’s inability to read
- Dsycalculia – refers to a person’s inability to do math
- Dsygraphia – refers to a person’s inability to write
- Aphasia – represents one’s inability to speak how one thinks and the monitoring of one’s thinking.
CLASSIFICATIONS OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
- MILD LEARNING DISABILITIES: This degree of learning disabilities is not very serious. Such pupils usually never do well and are always found at the bottom of the class. They need special assistance from teachers to push them up.
- MODERATE LEARNING DISABILITIES: This level of learning disabilities is more serious than the mild and calls for intensive assistance in their school work from parents, teachers and peers.
- SEVERE LEARNING DISABILITIES: The severely learning disabled finds it difficult to learn without special support, materials methods and individualization of instruction.
SIGNS / CHARACTERISITCS / IDENTIFICATION OF THE LEARNING DISABLED CHILD
- Perceptual motor problems: They have problems copying from the chalkboard. They are likely to repeat or reverse letters or words.
- Attention deficits: They it difficult to pay attention to on-going task and are likely to be distracted by objects around them.
- Memory Problem: They find it difficult to store and retrieve information. They also find it difficult to remember or narrate something they have witnessed, eg. An accident.
- Social Problems: They have problems interacting with others are also have difficulty in taking part in conversations.
- Language Disorders: They also have problem listening to and communicating with others.
- Behavoiur Problems: They get bored when they do not understand a lesson. Very often, they copy from bright pupils. They also excuses to leave the class when a difficult lesson is going on. When they finish assignments, they do not want to hand in their work.
CAUSES OF LEARNING DISABILITIY
The causes of learning disability can be both hereditary and environmental.
- HEREDITARY CAUSES
- Studies indicate that the issue of individuals with reading problems runs through some familiar.
- Researches also indicate that both identical twins from the same egg are more likely to have reading disabilities.
- Protein metabolic disorder called phenylkesoria which is a genetic disorder can cause abnormal brain development that may lead to a learning disability.
- Inactive or recessive genes may lead to handicapping conditions resulting in learning disability.
- ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES
- Poor educational experience
Studies indicate that poor instruction in elementary schools account for about 90% of all pupils identified with learning disability.
- Interactional Influences
Learning disabilities may also result from the interaction of personal and sociological factors such as motivation, health, socio-economic status and ethnicity. Research has shown that students with learning disabilities were significantly more at risk for school failure based on such factors as family socio-economic status, divorced parents, changing school frequently, family tragedy such as serious illness in the family or death of parents also contribute to their children’s learning disabilities.
- Maturational Delay
It has been revealed that a maturational delay of the neurological system results in the difficulties experienced by some children with learning disabilities. Maturation means a growth or increase in quantity and quality. This means, a child is to increase in body size or physically and increase in intelligence. If a child grows in body size but fails to increase in intelligence due to neurological or brain diseases, it may affect result in learning disability.